Vedas Understanding

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Vyanjan / Hal (consonants)

We understood in Origin of SAMSKRIT LETTERS that SOUND is first manifestation of an infinite and eternal existence, from this collection of sounds came the SWAR (vowels) and Vyanjan / Hal (consonants) which are called Aksharas (अक्षर) of Samskrit Varnamala (alphabets). These components were first suggested in the Vedas and clearly defined later by great saint Panini in Bharat, long before any other culture of the world had anything comparable to show for itself.

At a level of greater structural detail, the Samskrit Varnamala (alphabets) got developed in terms of the syllable called the Akshara (अक्षर) or “imperishable” unit of sound, comprised of the Vyanjan / Hal (consonants) and the SWAR (vowels), the former being the body which received life from the latter.

NOTE: Akshara (अक्षर) is also call as varn (वर्ण).

Vyanjan / Hal (consonants) in Samskrit.
In these 33 VYANJAN, Swar “अ ” is added for the sake of pronunciation.

The meaning of word Akshara (अक्षर) is अविनाशी ,that is, imperishable , as it is “atoms” of speech. The SWAR Akshara are also known Prana akshara (spirit) ,that is, they are main sounds in speech, without which speech is NOT possible.The letters that are NOT self- pronounced , but can be pronounced ONLY with the help of Swar (vowels), are called Vyanjan (consonants) .The Vyanjan (consonants) are also known as Prani akshara (living-being) ,that is, they are like a body in which life (SWAR) is present. It is only when the Vyanjan (consonants) is joined by a SWAR (vowels), when the body is joined by life that articulation becomes possible .

वर्गीकरण ,that is, the varga system of Vyanjan (consonants) is clearly the result of centuries of analysis as mentioned in Vedas. It is during this course of development, that basic concepts of phonology were discovered and defined.

Watch this video for detail explanation on VYANJAN / HAL (consonants)

In samskritam Vyanjan (consonants) is call as HAL (हल्). HAL is a Pratyahar which contains all the 33 Vyanjan (consonants).

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1 thought on “Vyanjan / Hal (consonants)”

  1. Brilliant article!
    Can you please also explain the meanings/etymology of Vyanjan and Hal? Prana akshara = svar, Prani akshara = Vyanjan/Hal, but then what do we call the vyanjan without svar?
    Apologies for such a silly question. I’m a noob.
    Thank you


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