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Pratyahar in Samskritam.

The SHORT WORDS , that is , Pratyahar were invented for the formation of technical words by Maharishi Panini in Samskritam language. Gradually this technique was adopted by other Indo-European languages for the formation of SHORT WORDS commonly known as abbreviation.

Pratyahar in Samskritam
Maharshi  Panini used  these 14 Maheshwar Sutra in Ashtadhyayi  to form “Pratyahar (प्रत्याहार)” and hence Maheshwar Sutra is  also known “Pratyahar Sutra.”
Introduction to Pratyahar

Where was the word “Pratyahar” first used?

Pratyahar Introduction
The word Pratyahar (प्रत्याहार) first appeared in Mahabhasya.

Maharishi Panini have NOT used the word “Pratyahar” in entire Ashtadhyayi so he has not given any definition of the word “Pratyahar”. Maharishi Panini has simply given the method of forming the Pratyahar and has extensively used them. The word “Pratyahar” is used by Maharishi Patanjali in his Mahabhasya and hence the word “Pratyahar” finds its place in Samskritam vyakaran. The second chapter of Patanjali’s Mahabhasya which is named as “प्रत्याहाराह्निक” (Pratyaharahnika) explains Pratyahar Sutra (Shiv sutra) in detail .

Formation of Pratyahar in Samskritam.

Pratyahar formation

Ashtadhyayi sutra called आदिरन्त्येन सहेता (१.१.७१)  explain the formation of Pratyahar. Watch the above video for detailed explanation .

Pratyahar Names with Meaning.

Following are the 42 Pratyahar, that is, short technical terms that is form by maharishi Panini to keep sutras in brevity in his master mind work on Samskrit Grammar “Ashtadhyayi”.

  1. अण्
  2. अक्
  3. इक्
  4. उक्
  5. एङ्
  6. अच्
  7. इच्
  8. एच्
  9. ऐच्
  10. अट्
  11. अण्
  12. इण्
  13. यण्
  14. अम्
  15. यम्
  16. ङम्
  17. *ञम्
  18. यञ्
  19. झष्
  20. भष्
  21. अश्
  22. हश्
  23. वश्
  24. झश्
  25. जश्
  26. बश्
  27. छव्
  28. यय्
  29. मय्
  30. झय्
  31. खय्
  32. चय्
  33. यर्
  34. झर्
  35. खर्
  36. चर्
  37. शर्
  38. अल्
  39. हल्
  40. वल्
  41. रल्
  42. झल्
  43. शल्

The meaning of these above Pratyahar and *ञम् has been explained in below video

**NOTE: रँ is an additional Pratyahar ,that is, वार्तिक प्रत्याहार which is added by later grammarian and the mention of this is in mahabhasya with reference to Ashtadhyayi sutra उरण् रँपर:, as रँ is a वार्तिक प्रत्याहार so it is not counted in 42 Pratyahar . The meaning of रँ Pratyahar is र ल , रँ Pratyahar was included later for the special swar varn ऋ & ऌ which will be explained more in detail in our future video on उरण् रँपर:

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